PART III CLOZE (15 MIN)
Decide which of the choices given below would correctly complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blanks. Select the correct choice for each blank.
Normative (规范的，标准的) ethics is concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. It includes the (26)_____ of moral rules that have direct implications for what human actions, (27)_____, and ways of life should be like. The central question of normative ethics is determining how basic moral standards are arrived at and (28)_____. The answers to this question (29)_____ two broad categories -- deontological (义务论的) and teleological (目的论的). The principal difference between them is that deontological theories do not appeal to value considerations in establishing ethical standards, (30)_____ teleological theories do. Deontological theories use the concept of their inherent rightness in establishing such standards, while teleological theories consider the goodness or value (31)_____ by actions as the principal criterion of their ethical value. In other words, a deontological approach (32)_____ doing certain things on principle or because they are (33)_____ right, whereas a teleological approach (34)_____ that certain kinds of actions are right because of the goodness of their consequences.
Deontological theories thus stress the concepts of obligation, ought, duty, and right and wrong, while teleological theories (35)_____ the good, the valuable, and the desirable. Deontological theories (36)_____ formal or relational criteria such as equality or (37)_____; teleological theories, (38)_____, provide material or substantive criteria, as, for example, happiness or pleasure.
The application of normative theories and standards (39)_____ practical moral problems is the concern of (40)_____ ethics. This subdiscipline of ethics deals with many major issues of the contemporary scene, including human rights, social equality, and the moral implications of scientific research, particularly in the area of genetic engineering.
26. A. form B. formality C. formula D. formulation
27. A. constitutions B. institutions C. consultations D. instructions
28. A. justified B. justifying C. justifiable D. justificatory
29. A. fall out B. fall upon C. fall into D. fall for
30. A. as B. when C. while D. since
31. A. brought into being B. being brought into being C. bring into being D. having brought into being
32. A. calls on B. calls for C. calls at D. calls up
33. A. coherently B. coherent C. inherently D. inherent
34. A. praises B. favors C. agrees D. advocates
35. A. lay stress on B. lay down to C. lay claim to D. lay eyes on
36. A. set forth B. set apart C. set at D. set down
37. A. immensity B. immunity C. immortality D. impartiality
38. A. in comparison B. by far C. in exchange D. by contrast
39. A. for B. to C. with D. on
40. A. applicable B. applicative C. applied D. applicant