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2017考研:英语语法要遵从一致原则

Source: 恒星英语学习网    2016-04-08  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

考研英语完型、阅读翻译及写作都不开语法知识,语法是基础,考生一定要熟悉,且灵活的掌握。2017考研复习之初,给大家讲解语法知识点,希望大家能够从现在日积月累,最终质变提升。

下面讲解的是关于语法一致原则的知识点:

语法一致原则是指句子的主语和谓语在语法形式上一致,即通常情况下,谓语动词的单复数形式依主语的单复数形式而定, 主语为单数形式时谓语动词用单数形式, 主语为复数形式时谓语动词也用复数形式。

2017考研:<a href=http://www.hxen.com target=_blank class=infotextkey>英语</a>语法要遵从一致原则

1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。

如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

2、由连接词and或both ……and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。

如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

注意:

(1)若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如:The writer and artist has come.

(2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no,each,every more than a (an),many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。

如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

3、主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with,together with,except,but,like,as well as,rather than,more than,no less than,besides,including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

4、either,neither,each,every 或no +单数名词和由some,any,no,every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

注意:

(1)在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词也可用复数。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting.

(2)若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。

如:None of us has (have) been to America.

5、在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有family,class,crowd,committee,population,audience等。

如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

注意:people,police,cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

7、由“a lot of,lots of,plenty of,the rest of,the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。

如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

注意:a number of“许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语用复数;the number of“……的数量”,主语是number,谓语用单数。

8、在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。

如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.


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