Source: 恒星英语学习网    2011-05-31  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

Parents are always telling kids they need to be optimistic, but there hasn't been much evidence that optimism really does them any good. Looking on the bright side may even hurt teenagers, say some experts, because it can make them downplay the risks posed by smoking and drug abuse. That's in stark contrast to older adults, who are generally healthier and happier the more optimistic they are.

But researchers in Australia say that optimism may help protect teenagers against depression. That news, reported in the journal Pediatrics, could matter to many teens, since 10 to 15 percent of adolescents have symptoms of depression at any given time. Depression is a huge risk factor for suicide and increases the risk of substance abuse, trouble in school and relationships, and physical illness.

The researchers followed 5,634 Australian 12- and 13-year-olds for 18 months, asking them about their psychological state, substance abuse, and antisocial behavior. The more optimistic the students were, the less likely they were to become depressed. But there was just a modest effect on other common teen problems. For instance, optimistic teenagers were only slightly less likely to be involved in criminal activity or heavy substance abuse.

What makes optimism work? An optimist believes the good things that happen in life will keep happening, and that they happen because she or he made them happen. Optimists also figure that bad things happen occasionally, and by chance, not because of one's own mistakes; and they believe those bad things are unlikely to happen again.

But for glass-half-empty types, there's good news: Optimism can be learned and it can help parents and teens deal more effectively with everyday adversity, says Martin Seligman, a psychologist who leads the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania. And learning to be more optimistic is as easy as ABCDE, says Seligman. He describes our usual response to life's bumps and bruises as a three-step process, or ABC:
但是对于悲观的人是好消息:乐观可以通过学习而养成,它可以帮助父母和青少年更有效地处理日常逆境,宾夕法尼亚大学积极心理学中心主任Martin Seligman说。Seligman说,学习乐观跟学习ABCDE一样简单。他将我们对生活中坎坷和挫伤的反应描述为一个3步过程,或ABC:

• Adversity. Recognizing a problem.
• Belief. What you believe about the problem. For example, the guy who cut you off in traffic is a jerk and an idiot.
• Consequences. You get mad at that jerk, and it ruins your day.
• 逆境。认识到问题。
• 信念。你认为问题是什么。例如,让你在路上受重伤的家伙是个白痴和傻瓜。
• 结果。你对那个白痴发火,这一切破坏了你的一天。

To avoid that bad consequence and increase optimism, Seligman recommends adding in two more steps, D and E:

• Disputation. Question your belief in what happened. What else could have caused the problem? Does your belief in what happened do you any good? Apply that to the jerk-in-traffic example, and it's easy to see how you can start rewriting the scenario to a happier outcome.

• 争论。质问你产生的信念。还有什么其他的原因引起这个问题?你所产生的看法对你有好处吗?把这应用在路上的白痴这个例子上,很容易就能看到你怎么开始将这个故事重写成一个更快乐的情节。

• Energization. This one sounds a bit woo-woo, but it just means figuring out how you can improve the situation, and jumping on it. For road rage, it could be as simple as laughing over the craziness of rush-hour traffic. In other situations, it could be asking others to help with a challenging project, seeking forgiveness from someone you've wronged, or distracting yourself from brooding over the bad things in life.
• 激发。 这听起来有点呼呼,但这只是说想出你怎么改进这种情况,并付诸行动。对于暴怒行为,可以跟笑着谈论上下班交通忙乱一样简单。对于其他状况,可以像要求别人帮助完成一个有挑战性的项目,寻求你做错事的人的原谅,或分散忧郁地沉思生活中坏事的注意力。

Our world is full of news that could turn us all into pessimists, and teenagers are experts at ruminating over the world's injustices. Optimism, whether born or learned, may make the travails of teenagerhood a bit less painful for us all.

网站地图 - 学习交流 - 恒星英语论坛 - 关于我们 - 广告服务 - 帮助中心 - 联系我们
Copyright ©2006-2007 www.Hxen.com All Rights Reserved