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雅思大作文开头--怎样写好很重要

Source: 互联网    2018-07-12  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

  “Well begun is half done”, 这句英文的谚语告诉了我们,好的开始是成功的一半。

  在雅思写作中,一个好的开头段不仅抓住读者的注意力,引起阅读兴趣,亦要点明中心论点,统领全文, 其重要性可见一斑。在雅思作文的写作中, 开头段一般由general statement,argument, thesis statement两部分构成。

  1General Statement

  General Statement的主要作用是介绍写作背景,引入话题。

  但是值得注意的是:不能照抄题目,应用同义词、近义词替换题目中的相关词语,

  并用不同的句子结构来改写题目中的句子结构。例如:

  Example 1:

  It is widely believed that mothers are by nature better parents than fathers. It is therefore more important for mothers to spend time with children than fathers. Others think fathers make equally good parents. What is your opinion?

  在这个题目中,首先我们可以看到题干表述用了三个句子,首先我们要区分哪句是general statement, 哪句是arguments. 其实很容易发现,通常句中间有明显阐述观点表达的,就是arguments, 而做客观陈述的就是general statement,其位置一般是题目的第一句。上题中 It is widely believed that mothers are by nature better parents than fathers, 就是我们要拿来做同义改写,放到我们开头段作为背景的句子。同义改写可以采取以下技巧:

  1 同义句型转换。

  如 It is widely believed that… 这个句套表达某事情是众所周的,它有很多同义句型,如 It is generally assumed that…, Common knowledge is that…, 等。

  2 同义词,近义词,同义结构转换。

  如by nature 这个介词词组表达的含义是,自然天性上的,在原句中作为be动词的表语,我们可以改写为一个同义名词词组,nurturing instinct,自然天性的意思。相应的,前面的谓语动词要发生变化,搭配have。

  3 造并列结构。

  有的时候我们可能发现原题中的表述无论词语还是句型都不是很轻易的可以找出同义结构出来,那么我们可以采取并列结构,即并列两个近义词语义,或者反义词再加否定结构。

  上题中的better parents than 可以改为 better or less dispensable parents than

  通过上面的三个步骤,我们就可以成功的将原题的背景句改写为我们开头段的general statement。

  原题:It is widely believed that mothers are by nature better parents than fathers.

  改写完后:It is generally assumed that women have a ‘nurturing instinct’that somehow makes them better or less dispensable parents than fathers are.

  General Statement常用句型:

  With the development of science and technology, great changes have taken place in…in the past few years. (虽常用,但已被滥用,建议减少使用)

  Along with the increasingly rapid _____________, more problems are brought to our attention.

  The issue of whether or not __________ has been widely/ heatedly/ debated currently/recently.

  When it comes to whether …, some… are strongly against it, claiming….

  It is generally accepted/ It is indeed the case that most countries have seen an increase in _______ over recent years.

  2Argument(争议)

  Argument即为题目表述的观点的立场,不同题目的立场表述大有不同。

  (1)有的题目中只有一个立场

  e.g. Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  在我们写的开头段,在写完general statement后,直接用One point is that…把原题的立场(countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time) 同义转述即可。

  值得注意的是,这个题目本身没有背景句,所以写general statement的时候,需要我们根据题目的argument进行总结。

  亦或者可以general statement 和argument这两个部分合并为一个部分,

  这个题目可写成:The issue of whether or not countries with a long average working hours are more successful in terms of economic development than those countries which do not have a long working time has been heatedly debated currently. As far as I am concerned, …

  (2)有的题目中包含两个互相否定或者相关的立场

  e.g. Some scientists think it is very soon that computers will be more intelligent than human. Some people think it is a positive development, while others think it is a negative development. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  e.g. Some people think the best way to reduce crimes is to give longer prison sentence. Others,however, think there are better alternative ways to reduce crime. Discuss and give your opinion.

  这样的题目,在开头段写完general statement后,要把题目双方的立场都转述,不可减少或删除一方立场。

  如 Some people think it is a positive development, while others think it is a negative development. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  可以转述为:Quite a few people claim that it has brought great benefits. On the other hand, those who think differently argue that it inevitably would has negative influence.

  3Thesis Statement (总论点)

  Thesis Statement简单来说就是作者对某一写作话题所持的明确观点。例如:

  1 In my opinion/ As far as I am concerned/ To my mind, students should wear uniforms in school.

  2 While the majority may like to live in a large family, I prefer to the small one.

  在雅思写作中,文章的立场,也就是全文的总论点,

  主要分两种:有倾向性立场和两边支持

  有倾向性(一边倒)

  有倾向性的立场一般在文章的开头即表明本文的立场,同意或者不同意,或者多大程度地同意和不同意。

  在剑桥雅思的考官范文中,有一个题目涉及对教育免费的商榷:All education,primary, secondary school and further education, should be free to all people and paid for by the government. Do you agree or disagree with the statement?

  考官在范文的开头段中即明确表明自己的立场:I certainly agree with the statement that this should be the case.

  当然,有倾向性的立场还包含让步的观点,这种立场的文章多见于以to what extent do you agree or disagree?提问的论题。

  如:Environmental problems should be solved by the government instead of individuals and private companies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  在考官范文的开头段中,立场是这样表明的:I concede that the government should lead the efforts in addressing the environmental problems. Nevertheless, cooperation and participation from the cooperations and individual citizens are essential as well.

  让步的立场并不需要纠结于在句子中回答到底agree 或者disagree没有, 清楚的说明自己的观点即可。

  值得注意的是,观点有倾向性并不代表思路有局限性。在辩论中,作者既要证明自己的观点,同时也要回应对方的观点,也就是说能够站在不同的角度看同一个事情,并且能看到各自的优劣。

  两边都支持

  这种文章立场一般常见于discuss both view and give your opinion这种提问方式的题目。立场一般建议在结尾段点明,并且要在结尾段明确题干两者之间的关系。

  (4) 开头段的两种常用写作方法

  将以上三个部分组合起来,我们步难得出开头段的以下两种写法:

  A. General Statement – Positive+Negative Idea – Thesis Statement

  The issue of whether or not students should take a part-time job has been widely/ heatedly debated currently/ recently. Quite a few people claim that it would not only widen their horizon but also help shape their personalities. On the other hand, those who think differently argue that the task of a student is to make good use of his limited time and acquire necessary knowledge and skill for the future career. As for me/ As far as I am concerned/ In my opinion, I believe that part-time jobs play a positive role in the development of university students.

  这种方法的一个变形形式是:

  General Statement – Opposite Idea – Thesis Statement

  Nowadays the incomes of many sport stars are truly astounding. Some people claim that the salaries of athletes are too high and the athletes themselves attract too much attention. Yet, in my opinion, such benefits are well deserved.

  B. General Statement – Concession – Thesis Statement

  When it comes to whether students should be allowed to work outside the school hours, some educators vote against it, claiming that part-time work may have a negative influence on their study. Obviously, too large amount of time a student is employed may contribute to a poor academic performance. However, if they do a part-time job over reasonable hours, it is extremely beneficial for them, providing financial support for their study and broadening their horizon.

  When evaluating a job applicant, most companies would place much weight on one’s educational certificate. Of course, one’s educational certificate does tell something about the applicant. However, it is not the only means through which we can judge whether the applicant is qualified or not.


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