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赚钱本事居然可以遗传?

Source: 恒星英语学习网  Onion  2009-05-19  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

Aldo Rustichini is a genial Italian economist with a head of hair that seems to have been modelled on Albert Einstein's. A professor at Cambridge and the University of Minnesota, he quickly transformed my interview with him into a full-blown undergraduate-style tutorial, occasionally asking me questions to check my understanding. Yet this likeable economist has been carrying out work with potentially explosive implications – including the possibility that economic success is genetically transmitted.
阿尔多•鲁斯蒂奇尼(Aldo Rustichini)是一位和蔼的意大利经济学家,一头白发仿佛是阿尔伯特•爱因斯坦(Albert Eistein)的翻版。作为剑桥大学(Cambridge)和明尼苏达大学(University of Minnesota)的教授,鲁斯蒂奇尼很快将我对他的采访变成了彻头彻尾的大学生个别辅导,并偶尔提几个问题来考查我的理解程度。但是这位可爱的经济学家一直在从事可能带来爆炸性影响的工作——其中包括经济上的成功可以遗传的可能性。

Rustichini's latest research – with Stephen Burks, Jeffrey Carpenter and Lorenz Goette – studies the behaviour of about 1,000 trainee truck drivers in the US. The researchers gave the truckers IQ tests and asked them to participate in a number of small experiments.
鲁斯蒂奇尼的最新研究是对约1000名美国实习卡车司机的行为分析。他的研究伙伴是斯蒂芬•伯克斯(Stephen Burks)、杰弗里•卡彭特(Jeffrey Carpenter)和洛伦茨•戈特(Lorenz Goette)。这些研究人员对卡车司机进行了智商测试,并让他们参加了一些小实验。

In one experiment, the truckers were asked to choose between gambles and certain payoffs. In another, the choice was between a sum of money now and more money later. A more complex experiment required the truckers to play an anonymous “trust” game. The first player was given $5 and offered the choice of sending it to the second player; the second player had his own $5 and was asked how much he would send to the first player were he to receive $5 from him, and how much if he didn't. The researchers promised to double the money sent in either direction – meaning that if the players managed to co-operate then each could get $10.
在一场实验中,卡车司机们必须在赌博和确定的报酬中做出选择。在另一场实验中,他们必须在当前获得一笔钱和稍后获得更多钱之间做出选择。另一场更为复杂的实验要求卡车司机进行匿名的“信任”游戏。研究人员给了第一位游戏者5美元,这位游戏者可以选择把这5美元送给第二位游戏者。第二位游戏者自己也得到了5美元,研究人员询问第二位游戏者,如果他从第一位游戏者那里得到5美元,会送给第一位游戏者多少钱,如果他没有得到,又会送给第一位游戏者多少。研究人员承诺让双方赠送的资金翻倍——这意味着如果游戏者成功合作,那么每人能得到10美元。

An intriguing pattern emerged. The truckers who scored highest on the IQ test were also more patient and more willing to take calculated risks, rejecting unfair gambles and accepting favourable ones. Their choices revealed a more consistent attitude to risk and a more consistent level of patience, too.
有趣的模式出现了。那些在智商测试中得分最高的卡车司机也表现得更有耐心,更愿意冒适当的风险,拒绝不公平的赌博游戏,接受有利于自己的赌博游戏。他们的选择表明他们对冒险的态度前后更加一致,忍耐程度也更具连贯性。

The high-IQ truckers were also better at predicting what other players would do in the trust game, and secured more money overall. When they played second, they were more discriminating, rewarding co-operation and punishing those who would not trust them.
高智商的卡车司机还更善于预测其他游戏者在信任游戏中的行为,而且总体上弄到的钱更多。当他们扮演第二名游戏者时,他们更有鉴别能力,奖励合作者,并惩罚那些不信任他们的游戏者。

High IQ goes hand in hand with patience, calculated risk-taking and interpersonal judgment, it seems – and this is true after statistically adjusting for age and race.
高智商似乎还与耐心、适当的冒险和人际关系判断密切相关——在经过年龄和种族的统计调整后,该结论仍然正确


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