商业书信英语 第一单元

Source: 恒星英语学习网  Onion  2009-08-24  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

[00:00.00]letterhead  n.
[00:01.67]reference n.
[00:03.32]salutation n.
[00:05.28]complimentary       adj.
[00:07.42]attention line
[00:09.82]subject line
[00:12.46]enclosure         n.
[00:14.68]carbon copy
[00:16.82]full block style
[00:20.01]indented style
[00:22.65]Parts of Business Letters
[00:25.31]Most business letters have seven standard parts.
[00:29.52]They are letterhead,reference and date,inside address,salutation,body,complimentary  close,and signature.
[00:43.86]When appropriate,any of the following optional items can be included .
[00:49.84]attention line ,subject line,file or account number,enclosures,carbon copy motation,mailing notation & postscript.
[01:08.68]Letterhead designs vary with business organizations and occupy the  top of the first page.
[01:16.88]They may be positioned at the center or at the left margin at the top of the page.
[01:24.06]A business letterhead,usually printed ,contains all or some of the following elements :the company's name,address,postcode,telephone number,telex,fax number,
[01:41.25]the name of the officer or the director and even some pictures or slogans for a symbol of the company.
[01:51.36]Reference and Date
[01:54.57]A typewritten date is necessarily included in the heading.
[01:59.72]The date is usually placed two lines below the last line of the letterhead at left margin for full block style.
[02:09.91]or ending with the right margin for indented style.
[02:15.99]It is ususl to show the date in the order day/month/year(English practice) or month/day/year(American practice)
[02:29.29]Avoid giving a date in figures and abbreviations.
[02:35.43]Inside Address
[02:38.64]The inside address is typed directly below the date line at the left hand margin.
[02:45.75]The inside address of a letter to an individual consists of the person's courtesy title.
[02:52.93]name,business or executive title(it should be used immediately after the name) and address.
[03:03.12]When the letter is to a group,the inside adress includes the full group name and the address.
[03:10.22]Care should be taken to address the recipient exactly as on the envelope.
[03:20.05]Salutation is place at the left margin two lines below the inside address and two lines above the body of the letter.
[03:31.30]Considered a polite greeting with which a friendly business  letter begins,the personal salutation must be appropriate for the first line of the inside address.
[03:45.57]If the letter is addressed to an individual,it is uaual to use.
[03:51.31]Dear Mr.Smith
[03:54.45]Dear Ms.John
[03:57.58]Dear Prof.Hobart
[04:01.82]Dear Dr.Walter
[04:04.98]The trend is towards Ms as the courtesy title for all women regardless of their marital status.
[04:14.20]When addressing a letter to a firm.Dear Sirs.Ladies and Gentlemen or Gentlemen(American English)would be used.
[04:26.29]Attention Line
[04:28.46]An attention line is considered a part of the inside address
[04:33.14]and it leads the letter to a particular person or department when the letter is addressed to a company.
[04:41.34]It is usually between the inside address and the salutation or above the inside address,as shown in examples.
[04:51.47]Attention:Inport Department
[04:54.61]For the attention of Mr.Donnan,Sales Manager
[04:59.81]Attention of Mr.Standard,General Manager
[05:04.48]Subject Line
[05:07.70]The subject heading is regarded as a part of the body of a business letter.
[05:12.89]Usually it is in the upper case or initial capitals/underline and placed between the salutation and the body of a letter to call attention to what content the letter is about .For example:
[05:29.09]Dear Ms.Smith
[05:31.21]Our Catalogue No.2.
[05:33.79]Opening Sentence
[05:36.14]The first paragraph of the body is introductory.
[05:40.04]It will always begin with reference to the previous letter received and provide an introduction to what will discussed.
[05:48.29]Here are examples as follows:
[05:52.00](1)Your letter of 9"September addressed to our Beijing Branch Office has been passed on to us for attention.
[06:02.97](2)We refer to quotations of 8"October and our mail often of 1 "December regarding the supply of Speedo swimming caps.
[06:16.32](3)We acknowledge,with thanks,receipt of your binding application form for the 76"International Exhibition in March,1998.
[06:28.28](4)We are pleased to inform you that the arrangements have now been made to ship the cotton underwear under you Order No.456.
[06:40.54](5)we regret up to the time of writing we have not heard anything from you about the shipment under the captioned contract.
[06:51.56]Body of the Letter
[06:53.75]A body,where all the information is to be given ,usually falls into four Parts:opening,middle,future plan and closing.
[07:04.83]Messages should be stated and arranged logically.If necessary paragraphed appropriately.
[07:12.04]Closing Sentence
[07:14.63]The closing paragraph,usually with a one-line sentence,refers to furure actions or expresses the good wishes.
[07:24.34]Caution should be taken here to avoid the closing beginning with a participle,a preposition or infinitive.The following are examples:
[07:35.42](1)You close cooperation in this respect will be appreciated.In the meantime we wait your shipping advice by fax.
[07:45.01](2)Your immediate attention to this matter will be appreciated.
[07:50.75](3)Your further inquiry is awaited with interest.
[07:55.98](4)We assure you that all your inquiries will receive our prompt attention.
[08:01.91](5)If you decide to take advantage of our offer,kindly cable your acceptance.
[08:07.55]Complimentary Close
[08:09.51]The complimentary close is simply a polite way to end a letter.
[08:13.79]The expression for the complimentary close should match the salutation.
[08:19.02]it appears in the middle of the page and two lines below the closing sentenced for indented layout while it starts at the left-hand margin for fully blocked letters.
[08:30.30]Only the initial letter in the first word of any complimentary close is capitalized.
[08:40.20]The signature mainly consists of the addresser's signature ,the typed name of his and his business title.
[08:49.40]The complimentary close may not be followed by the name of the company if it is previously printed on the letter-head.
[08:58.31]The addresser should sign the letter by hand and in  ink above the typed name which the typed post title follows immediately.
[09:08.94]Signing on behalf of somebody else ,it is usual to wrote for .pp or per pro before the letter.
[09:21.27]Enc.Or Encs,is typed two lines spaces after the signature of the address when something is sent along with the letter.
[09:32.89]An enclosure can  be anything in the envelopie in addition to the message itself.
[09:37.96]Examples are as follows:Enc:1 Price List.
[09:44.25]if the enclosed are more than one ,the number should be marked.
[09:51.05]when you find something forgotten to be included in the letter body before the envelope is to be sealed up,you may state it after the signature in a postscript with a simple signarure again.
[10:04.21]The adding of a P.S should ,however,be avoided as far as possible
[10:10.93]For examples:PS:the catalogue was sent to you on July 7.
[10:17.12]Full Block Form
[10:19.31]Full block form and modified block form with indented paragraphs are the two main patterns of layout in current use.
[10:29.52]The former is now the most popular practice of displaying business letters.
[10:34.64]Its remarkable feature is that all typing lines including those for the date.
[10:39.90]inside name of address,salutation,subject heading ,each message paragraph and complimentary close,begin at the left-hand margin.
[10:51.47]Bussiness letter with the full block form,along with open punctuation or mixed punctuation,are paragraphed by equal line spaces.
[11:01.73]For this letter-style the open punctuation is used ,the end of the date line,the inside address lines,the salutation,the complimentary close and the signature block lines are unpunctuated,
[11:18.79]but a comma is necessary between the day and year in the date line and the full stop is retained after the abbreviation such as Co.Inc.and Ltd.
[11:32.06]while the mixed punctuation pattern,the most welcomed style today,requires an absence of punctuation marks from the date line,the inside address lines and the signature block lines
[11:46.22]except a colon or comma after the salutation and the complimentary close.
[11:52.36]Indented style is the tradition British practice with the heading usually in the middle and the date on the right-hand side.
[12:01.87]The complimentary close may be in the center or commence at the center point.The mixed punctuation is often used.
[12:09.68]Writing Rules for Business Letters
[12:12.81]Business correspondence is still a basic activity involved in trade,and remains a very important form of communication even nowadays.
[12:24.88]They deliver their companies images to the public.
[12:28.62]Business letters are often an arrangement or regarded as evidence of a contract.
[12:34.63]They are written for information exchange and bridge over the desires between buyers and sellers.
[12:41.29]The most effective letter should be easy to read and easy to understand .They must be friendly and courteous.
[12:50.59]We should bear in mind the point that business letters play an important role in the development of good will and friendly trade relationships.
[13:00.36]Generally speaking,we need to apply some specific writing principles while writing a business letters.
[13:08.61]They're:consideration,completeness,correctness,concreteness,conciseness,clarity and courtesy.
[13:23.42]Try to put yourself in his or her place to give consideration to his or her wishes,demands,interests and diffuculties.
[13:35.57]find the best way to express your better understanding and present the message.
[13:41.66]That enables a request to be refused without killing all hope of business or allows a refusal to do a favor to be made without harming friendship.
[13:56.08]Correctness means not only proper expressions with correct grammar,punctuation and spelling but also appropriate tone which is a help to achieve the purpose.
[14:07.67]It likes to convey the real message in a way that will not cause offence even of it is a complaint or an answer to such a letter.
[14:17.91]Bussiness letters must be factual information.
[14:22.07]accurate figures and exact terms in particular,
[14:27.19]for they involve the right,the duties and the interest of both sides often as the base of all kinds of documents.
[14:37.35]Therefore we should not understate nor overstate.
[14:41.55]as understatement might lead to less confidence and hold up the trade development.
[14:47.77]while overstatement throws you into an awkward position.
[14:55.03]As you work hard for completeness ,keep the folowing guidelines in mind:
[15:00.21]why do you write the letter,what are the facts supporting the reasons.
[15:06.37]whether you have answer all the questions asked or not and what the reader is expected to do.
[15:15.67]What the letter comes to should be specific ,definite rather than vague,abstract and general.
[15:22.59]Take ,for example,some qualities or characters of goods that should be shown with exact figures and avoid words like short,long or good.
[15:33.88]Give specific time (with date,month,year and even offer hour,minute if necessary)
[15:41.01]But avoid expressions such as yesterday,next month,immediately and etc.
[15:50.83]Conciseness means complete message but briefest expression with no sacrificing carity or courtesy.
[16:00.97]A good business letter should be precise and to the point.
[16:04.13]Single words are more efficient than phrases.
[16:07.21]Wordy languages and redundancy require more time and money to type and to read.
[16:13.37]They are not what modern business people want.
[16:17.71]Keep constantly in mind what you want to say in your letter.
[16:21.37]It is welcomed if you express yourself clearly and directly in the simplest language.
[16:26.96]Plain,simple words are more easily understood.
[16:30.75]A properly paragraphed message is required for the purpose of clarity.
[16:35.45]For instance,we use semimonthly instead of bimonthly for two times a month,because bimonthly may mean both two times a month and once every two month.
[16:51.38]Courtesy means to show tactfully in your letters the honest friendship,thoughtful appreciation,sincere politeness,considerate understanding and heartfelt respect.
[17:04.97]Answer letters in good time and write to explain why is you fall to do it promptly.
[17:11.18]Even if you don't think the recipient is right,you should still respond tactfully and politely.
[17:17.90]Sometimes it is a help to use you-attitude instead of I-attitude.

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