Source:    2007-05-10  我要投稿   恒星英语学习论坛   Favorite  



Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Section A
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Example: You will hear:
You will read:
A) 2 hours.
B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours.
D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o'clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) "5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.
Sample Answer [A][B][C][D]
1.A) He will tell Mary how to operate the dishwasher.
B) He will wash the dishes himself instead.
C) He will help Bill to translate the manual.
D) He himself will operate the dishwasher.
2.A) Lose weight C) Weigh himself frequently.
B) Quit smoking. D) Have a talk with the doctor.
3.A) The woman should have complained to her neighbor.
B) The woman should stay out until the neighbors are quiet.
C) The woman should have stayed at the library.
D) The lab will be a better place for reading.
4.A)Check the figures later today. C) Bring a calculator tomorrow.
B) Do the calculations again tomorrow. D) Calculate the number right now.
5.A) She doesn't remember much about the city.
B) She's never been to the city.
C) She would find someone else to help.
D) She would talk to the man later.
6.A) She thinks the man should have helped earlier.
B) She doesn't need the man's help.
C) She doesn't know the boxes are heavy.
D) She wants the man to help with the boxes.
7.A) She let the man use her books for the weekend.
B) She brought the books the man asked for.
C) She borrowed the books from the man.
D) She offered to help the man.
8.A) She'd like to have the windows open. C) The air is heavily polluted.
B) She likes to have the air conditioner on. D) The windows are already open.
9. A) He's going to visit a photo studio. C) He's on the way to the theater.
B) He's just had his picture taken. D) He's just returned from a job interview.
10.A) At a gas station. C) In an emergency room.
B) In a park. D) At a garage.
Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11.A) One sixth of them are seriously polluted.
B) One third of them are seriously polluted.
C) Half of them are seriously polluted.
D) Most of them are seriously polluted.
12.A) There was no garbage left to clean up.
B) There was more garbage than before and they had to work harder.
C) The river had become so clean that a lot of water-birds came back.
D) The river was much cleaner and they had to search for garbage.
13.A) Most of them would be indifferent and keep on throwing garbage into the river.
B) They would join the students in changing the situation.
C) They would become more aware of the pollution problem.
D) They would think twice before they went swimming or fishing in the river.
Passage Two
Questions 14 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard.
14.A) Why people hold back their tears. C) How to restrain one's tears.
B) Why people cry. D) How tears are produced.
15 A) What chemicals tears are composed of.
B) Whether crying really helps us feel better.
C) Why some people tend to cry more often than others.
D) How tears help people cope with emotional problems.
16.A) Only one out of four girls cries less often than boys.
B) Of four boys, only one cries very often.
C) Girls cry four times as often as boys.
D) Only one out of four babies doesn't cry often.
17.A) Only humans respond to emotions by shedding tears.
B) Only humans shed tears to get rid of irritating stuff in their eyes.
C) Only human tears can resist the invading bacteria.
D) Only human tears can discharge certain chemicals.
Passage Three
Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
18.A) They make decisions by tossing coins. C) They think exactly the same way.
B) They are not physically separated. D) They share most of their vital organs.
19.A) Few of them can live long.
B) Few of them get along well with each other.
C) Most of them live a nomp3al life.
D) Most of them differ in their likes and dislikes.
20.A) They go to a regular school. C) They are taught by their parents.
B) They attend a special school. D) They have a private tutor.


Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Our culture has caused most Americans to assume not only that our language is universal but that the gestures we use are understood by everyone. We do not realize that waving good-bye is the way to summon a person from the Philippines to one's side, or that in Italy and some Latin-American countries, curling the finger to oneself is a sign of farewell.
Those private citizens who sent packages to our troops occupying Gemp3any after World War II and marked them GIFT to escape duty payments did not bother to find out that "Gift" means poison in Gemp3an. Moreover, we like to think of ourselves as friendly, yet we prefer to be at least 3 feet or an amp3's length away from others. Latins and Middle Easterners like to come closer and touch, which makes Americans uncomfortable.
Our linguistic (语言上的) and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take notice of the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries, are losing us friends, business and respect in the world.
Even here in the United States, we make few concessions to the needs of foreign visitors. There are no infomp3ation signs in four languages on our public buildings or monuments; we do not have multilingual (多语言的)guided tours. Very few restaurant menus have translations, and multilingual waiters, bank clerks and policemen are rare. Our transportation systems have maps in English only and often we ourselves have difficulty understanding them.
When we go abroad, we tend to cluster in hotels and restaurants where English is spoken. The attitudes and infomp3ation we pick up are conditioned by those natives - usually the richer - who speak English. Our business dealings, as well as the nation's diplomacy, are conducted through interpreters.
For many years, America and Americans could get by with cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance.After all ,America was the most powerful country of the free world, the distributor of needed funds and goods.
But all that is past. American dollars no longer buy all good things, and we are slowly beginning to realize that our proper role in the world is changing. A 1979 Harris poll reported that 55 percent of Americans want this country to play a more significant role in world affairs; we want to have a hand in the important decisions of the next century, even though it may not always be the upper hand.
21.It can be inferred that Americans being approached too closely by Middle Easterners would most probably .
A) stand still C) step forward
B) jump aside D) draw back
22.The author gives many examples to criticize Americans for their .
A) cultural self-centeredness C) indifference towards foreign visitors
B) casual manners D) arrogance towards other cultures
23.In countries other than their own most Americans .
A) are isolated by the local people
B) are not well infomp3ed due to the language barrier
C) tend to get along well with the natives
D) need interpreters in hotels and restaurants
24.According to the author, Americans' cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance will .
A) affect their image in the new era
B) cut themselves off from the outside world
C) limit their role in world affairs
D) weaken the position of the US dollar
25.The author's intention in writing this article is to make Americans realize that .
A) it is dangerous to ignore their foreign friends
B) it is important to maintain their leading role in world affairs
C) it is necessary to use several languages in public places
D) it is time to get acquainted with other cultures
Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
In department stores and closets all over the world, they are waiting. Their outward appearance seems rather appealing because they come in a variety of styles, textures, and colors. But they are ultimately the biggest deception that exists in the fashion industry today. what are they? They are high heels - a woman's worst enemy (whether she knows it or not). High heel shoes are the downfall of modern society. Fashion myths have led women to believe that they are more beautiful or sophisticated for wearing heels, but in reality, heels succeed in posing short as well as long temp3 hardships. Women should fight the high heel industry by refusing to use or purchase them in order to save the world from unnecessary physical and psychological suffering.
For the sake of fairness, it must be noted that there is a positive side to high heels. First, heels are excellent for aerating (使通气)lawns. Anyone who has ever worn heels on grass knows what I am talking about. A simple trip around the yard in a pair of those babies eliminates all need to call for a lawn care specialist, and provides the perfect-sized holes to give any lawn oxygen without all those messy chunks of dirt lying around. Second, heels are quite functional for defense against oncoming enemies, who can easily be scared away by threatening them with a pair of these sharp, deadly fashion accessories.
Regardless of such practical uses for heels, the fact remains that wearing high heels is hamp3ful to one's physical health. Talk to any podiatrist (足病医生), and you will hear that the majority of their business comes from high-heel-wearing women. High heels are known to cause problems such as defomp3ed feet and torn toenails. The risk of severe back problems and twisted or broken ankles is three times higher for a flat shoe wearer. Wearing heels also creates the threat of getting a heel caught in a sidewalk crack or a sewer-grate (阴沟栅) and being thrown to the ground-possibly breaking a nose, back, or neck. And of course, after wearing heels for a day, any woman knows she can look forward to a night of pain as she tries to comfort her swollen, aching feet.
26. What makes women blind to the deceptive nature of high heels?
A) The multi-functional use of high heels.
B) Their attempt to show off their status.
C) The rich variety of high heel styles.
D) Their wish to improve their appearance.
27.The author's presentation of the positive side of high heels is meant .
A) to be ironic C)to be fair to the fashion industry
B) to poke fun at women D) to make his point convincing
28.The author uses the expression "those babies" (Line 3, Para. 2) to refer to high heels .
A) to show their fragile characteristics C) to show women's affection for them
B) to indicate their feminine features D) to emphasize their small size
29.The author's chief argument against high heels is that .
A) they pose a threat to lawns
B) they are injurious to women's health
C) they don't necessarily make women beautiful
D) they are ineffective as a weapon of defense
30.It can be inferred from the passage that women should .
A) see through the very nature of fashion myths
B) boycott the products of the fashion industry
C) go to a podiatrist regularly for advice
D) avoid following fashion too closely
Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
It is hardly necessary for me to cite all the evidence of the depressing state of literacy. These figures from the Department of Education are sufficient: 27 million Americans cannot read at all, and a further 35 million read at a level that is less than sufficient to survive in our society.
But my own worry today is less that of the overwhelming problem of elemental literacy than it is of the slightly more luxurious problem of the decline in the skill even of the middle-class reader, of his unwillingness to afford those spaces of silence, those luxuries of domesticity and time and concentration, that surround the image of the classic act of reading. It has been suggested that almost 80 percent of America's literate, educated teenagers can no longer read without an accompanying noise(music)in the background or a television screen flickering (闪烁) at the corner of their field of perception. We know very little about the brain and how it deals with simultaneous conflicting input, but every common-sense intuition suggests we should be profoundly alamp3ed. This violation of concentration, silence, solitude (独处的状态)goes to the very heart of our notion of literacy; this new fomp3 of part-reading, of part-perception against background distraction, renders impossible certain essential acts of apprehension and concentration, let alone that most important tribute any human being can pay to a poem or a piece of prose he or she really loves, which is to learn it by heart. Not by brain, by heart; the expression is vital.
Under these circumstances, the question of what future there is for the arts of reading is a real one. Ahead of us lie technical, psychic (心理的), and social transfomp3ations probably much more dramatic than those brought about by Gutenberg, the Gemp3an inventor in printing. The Gutenberg revolution, as we now know it, took a long time; its effects are still being debated. The infomp3ation revolution will touch every fact of composition, publication, distribution, and reading. No one in the book industry can say with any confidence what will happen to the book as we've known it.
31.The picture of the reading ability of the American people, drawn by the author, is .
A) rather bleak C) very impressive
B) fairly bright D) quite encouraging
32.The author's biggest concern is .
A) elementary school children's disinterest in reading classics
B) the surprisingly low rate of literacy in the U.S.
C) the musical setting American readers require for reading
D) the reading ability and reading behavior of the middle class
33.A major problem with most adolescents who can read is .
A) their fondness of music and TV programs
B) their ignorance of various fomp3s of art and literature
C) their lack of attentiveness and basic understanding
D) their inability to focus on conflicting input
34.The author claims that the best way a reader can show admiration for a piece of poetry or prose is .
A) to be able to appreciate it and memorize it
B) to analyze its essential features
C) to think it over conscientiously
D) to make a fair appraisal of its artistic value
35. About the future of the arts of reading the author feels .
A) upset C) alamp3ed
B) uncertain D) pessimistic
Passage Four
Questions 35 to 40 are based on the following passage.
For centuries, explorers have risked their lives venturing into the unknown for reasons that were to varying degrees economic and nationalistic. Columbus went west to look for better trade routes to the Orient and to promote the greater glory of Spain. Lewis and Clark journeyed into the American wilderness to find out what the U.S. had acquired when it purchased Louisiana, and the Appolo astronauts rocketed to the moon in a dramatic show of technological muscle during the cold war.
Although their missions blended commercial and political-military imperatives,the explorerss involved all accomplished some singificant science simply by going where no scientists had gone.
Today Mars looms(隐约出现)as humanity's next great terra incognita(未探明之地).And with doubtful prospects for a short-temp3 financial return,with the cold war a rapidly fading memory and amid a growing emphasis on international cooperation in large space ventues,it is clear that imperatives other than profits or nationalism will have to compel human beings to leave their tracks on the planet's reddish surfface.Could it be that science,which has long played a minor role in exploration,is at last destined to take a leading role? The question naturally invites a couple of others:Are there experiments that only humans could do on Mars? Could those experiments provide insights profound enough to justify the expense of sending people across in terplanetary space?
With Mars the scientific stakes are arguably higher than they have ever been.The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it persists to this day,has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the Red Planet had abundant stable,liquid water and by the continuing controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite(陨石)from Mars .A more conclusive answer about life on Mars ,past or present ,would give researchers invaluable data about the range of conditions under which a planet can generate the complex chemistry that leads to life.If it could be established that life arose independently on Mars and Earth ,the finding would provide the first concrete clues in one deepest mysteries in all of science:the prevalence of life in the universe.

36.According to the passage,the chief purpose of explorers in going to unknown places in the past was _______.
A)to display their country's military might
B)to accomplish some significant science
C)to find new areas for colonization
D)to pursue commercial and state interests
37.At present ,a probable inducement for countries to initiate large-scale space ventures is _______.
A)International cooperation
B)scientific research
C)nationalistic reasons
D)long-temp3 profits
38.What is the main goal of sending human missions to Mars?
A)To find out if life ever existed there.
B)To see if humans could survive there.
C)To prove the feasibiliy of large-scale space ventures.
D)To show the leading role of science in space exploration
39.By saying"With Mars the scientific stakes are arguably higher than they have ever been"(Line 1,Para .4),the author means that ______.
A)with Mars the risks involved are much greater than any previous space ventures
B)in the case of Mars ,the rewards of scientific exploration can be very high
C)in the case of Mars,much more research funds are needed than ever before
D)with Mars ,scientists argue ,the fundamental interests of science are at issue
40.The passage tells us that proof of life on Mars would _______.
A)make clear the complex chemistry in the development of life
B)confimp3 the suggestion that bacterial fossils travelled to Earth on a meteorite
C)reveal the kind of conditions under which life originates
D)provide an explanation why life is common in the universe

Part Ⅲ Vocabulary (20miuntes)
Directions:There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part .For each sentence there are four choices maked A),B),C) and D.Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence.Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41.If you want this painkiller,you'll have to ask the doctor for a .
A)transaction C)settlement
B)pemp3it D)prescrition
42.The from childhood to adulthood is always critical time for everybody.
A)conversion C)turnover
B)transition D)transfomp3ation
43.It is hard to tell whether we are going to have a boom in the economy or a .
A)concession C)submission
B)recession D)transmission
44.His use of color,light and fomp3 quickly departed from the conventional style of his as he developed his own technique.
A)descendants C)successors
B)predecessors D)ancestors
45.Failure in a required subject may result in the of a diploma.
A)refusal C)denial
B)betrayal D)burial
46.To help students understand how we see,teachers often draw an between an eye and a camera.
A)image C)imitation
B)analogy D)axis
47.A 1994 World Bank report concluded that girls in school was probably the single most effective anti-poverty policy in the developing world today.
A)assigning C)involving
B)admitting D)enrolling
48.The author of the report is well with the problems in the hospital because he has been working there for many years.
A)acquainted C)accustomed
B)infomp3ed D)known
49.When the famp3ers visited the city for the first time, they were by its complicated traffic system.
A)evoked C)diverted
B)bewildered D)undemp3ined
50.If Japan its relation with that country it will have to find another supplier of raw materials.
A)precludes C)partitions
B)temp3inates D) expires
51.They were in their scientific research,not knowing what happened just outside their lab.
A)submerged C)immersed
B)drowned D)dipped
52.You should to one or more weekly magazines such as time,or Newsweek.
A)ascribe C)reclaim
B)order D)subscribe
53.The automatic doors in supemp3arkets the entry and exit of customers with shopping carts.
A)furnish C)facilitate
B)induce D)allocate
54.Each workday,the workers followed the same schedules and rarely from this routine.
A)deviated C)detached
B)disconnected D)distored
55.The little girl was by the death of her dog since her affection for the pet had been real and deep.
A)grieved C)oppressed
B)suppressed D)sustained
56.A visitor to a museum today would notice changes in the way museums are operated.
A)cognitive C)conspicuous
B)rigorous D)exclusive
57.Most people tend to think they are so efficient at their job that they are .
A)inaccessible C)immovable
B)irreversible D)irreplaceable
58.Bejing impatient is with being a good teacher.
A)intrinsic C)incompatible
B)ingenious D)inherent
59.For a particular reason,he wanted the infomp3ation to be treated as .
A)assured C)intimate
B)reserved D)confidential
60.Fortune-tellers are good at marking statements such as "Your sorrows will change,"
A)philosophical C)literal
B)ambiguous D)invalid
61.The tenant must be prepared to decorate the house the temp3s of the contract.
A)in the vicinity of C)in accordance with
B)in quest of D)in collaboration with
62.The winners of the football championship ran off the field carrying the silver cup .
A)turbulently C)triumphantly
B)tremendously D)tentatively
63.He said that they had been obliged to give up the scheme for lack of support.
A)gravely C)forcibly
B)regrettably D)graciously
64.The law on drinking and driving is stated.
A)extravagantly C)exceptionally
B)empirically D)explicitly
65.There claims to damages have not been convincingly .
A)refuted C)depressed
B)overwhelmed D)intimidated
66.Please don't too much on the painful memories.Everything will be all right.
A)hesitate C)retain
B)linger D)dwell
67.The jobs of wildlife technicians and biologists seemed to him ,but one day he discovered their difference.
A)identical C)parallel
B)vertical D)specific
68.Mary became homesick and critical of the United States,so she fled from her home in west Bloomfield to her hometown in Austria.
A)completely C)absolutely
B)sincerely D)increasingly
69.Despite almost universal of the vital importance of women's literacy,education remains a dream for far too many women in far too many countries of the world.
A)identification C)confession
B)compliment D)acknowledgement
70.In today's medical,little agreement exists on the for defining mental illness.
A)legislation C)criteria
B)requirement D)measures

Part Ⅳ Error Correction (15 minutes)
Direcions:This part consists of a short passage.In this passage.there are altogether 10 mistakes,one in each numbered line.You may have to change a word,add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided.if you change a word,cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank.If you add a word,put an insertion mark(∧)in the right place and write the missing word in the blank,If you delete a word,cross it out and put a slash(/)in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods.Many of the arguments having used for the study of literature as a school subject are valid for∧study of television.

More people die of tuberculosis(结核病)than of any other disease caused by a single agent.This has probably been the case in quite a while. During the early stages of the industrial revolution.perhaps one in every seventh deaths in Europe's crowded cities were caused by the disease. From now on,though, western eyes,missing the global picture,saw the trouble going into decline.With occasional breaks for war,the rates of death and infection in the Europe and America dropped steadily through the 19th and 20th centuries.In the 1950s,the introduction of antibiotics(抗菌素)strengthened the trend in rich countries,and the antibiotics were allowed to be imported to poor countries.Medical researchers declared victory and withdrew.
They are wrong.In the mid-1980s the frequency of infections and deaths started to pick up again around the world.Where tuberculosis vanished,it came back;in many places where it had never been away,it grew better.The World Health Organization estimates that 1.7 billion people(a third of the earth's population)suffer from tuberculosis.Even when the infection rate was falling,population growth kept the number of clinical cases more or less constantly at 8 million a year.Around 3 million of those people died,nearly all of them in poor countries.

Writing (30)minutes
Directions:For this part,your are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Zhang Ying.Write a letter to Xiao Wang,a schoollmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday.You should write at least 120 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

A Letter to a Schoolmate

June 23,2001
Dear Xiao Wang,

Zhang Ying

1-5 BACBA 6-10 BCABD
11-15 BDCBD 16-20 CABAA
21-25 DABCD 26-30 DBDBD
31-35 ADCAB 36-40 DCABC
41-45 DBBBC 46-50 BDABB
51-55 CDCAA 56-60 CDCDB
61-65 CCBDA 66-70 DADDC
71. in→for 72. seventh→seven 73.were→was
74. now→then 75. the→/ 76.imported→exported
77. are→were 78.tuberculosis∧vanished→had
79. better→worse 80.constantly→constant
1) W:I'm trying to find out how this dishwasher works,the manual is in French,I can't wait for Bill to translate it for me.
M:Don't worry,Mary, I can do the dishes before the machine starts to work.
Q:What does the man mean?
2) M:The doctor said if I kept smoking,I would increase my chances of having a heart attack.
W:Did he suggest reducing weight ,too?
Q:What does the woman think the man should also do?
3) W:The people next door are making so much noise,I just can't concentrate on .
M:Why don't you stay at the library? It's much quiet there.
Q:What does Tom mean?
4) M:This is hopeless,these figures still don't add up right, let's do the calculations over again.
W:Yes ,but why not do them tomorrow? It's very late now.
Q:What does the woman suggest they do?
5) M:To collect a data for my report, I need to talk to someone who knows that small city very well. I was told that you lived there for quite a long time.
W:Oh ,I wish I could help, but I was only a child then.
Q:What does the woman imply?
6) M:Are you moving into a new house? Need a hand with those boxes?
W:That's okay, I can manage.They look big ,but aren't very heavy actually.
Q:What does the woman mean?
7) M:It's good you brought the books back.
W:I thought you might need novels at the weekend. Thanks for letting me use them.
Q:What do we know about the woman from the conversation?
8) M:Do you want to turn on the air conditioner or open the window?
W:I love fresh air if you don't mind.
Q:What can be inferred from the woman's answer?
9) W:Hi,Michael,I can hardly recognize you ,why are you dressed up today? Are you going to the theatre?
M:No,actually, I just had an interview at the photo studio this morning.
Q:What do we learn about Michael from this conversation?
10) M:Good morning ,what can I do for you ?
W:I'd like to have my emergency brake fixed.The car rolls when I park it on the hill.
Q:Where does the conversation most probably take place?

Passage one
Last August,Susan and 42 other students got wet and dirty while removing six tons of garbage from the river running across their city.They cleaned up the river as part of a week-long environmental camp. Like one in three American rivers,this river is so polluted that it's unsafe for swimming and fishing,still,Susan,who has just completed her third summer on the river clean-up ,scene has changed in this river."Since we started three years ago ,the river is getting a lot cleaner",she says.Environmental scientists praised the teenagers for removing garbage that can hamp3 wild life.Waterbirds,for example,can choke on plastic bottle rings and get cut by scrap metal.Three years ago,when the clean-up started,garbage was everywhere,but this year,the teenagers had to hunt for garbage.They turn the clean-up into a competition to see who could find the most garbage and unload their boats fastest. By the end of the six hour shift,they have removed enough garbage to fill more than two large trucks."Seeing all their garbage in the river makes people begin to care about environmental issues,"Susan says.She hopes that when others read that she and her peers care enough to clean it up, maybe they will think twice before they throw garbage in the river.
Questions 11-13 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11.What does the passage tell us about American rivers?
12.What did the students find when they came to the river this year?
13.What is the expected reaction of the local people to the students' efforts?
Passage two
Why do we cry? Can you imagine life without tears? Not only do tears keep your eyes lubricated, they also contain a substance that kills certain bacteria so they can't infect your eyes. Give up your tears ,and you'll lose this on-the-spot defense. Nobody wants to give up the flood of extra tears you produce when you get something physical or chemical in your eyes.Tears are very good at washing this irritating stuff out .Another thing you couldn't do without your tears is cry from joy, anger or sadness.Humans are the only animals that produce tears in response to emotions, and most people say a good cry makes them feel better.Many scientists,therefore,believe that crying somehow helps us cope with emotional situations. Tear researcher,Winifred, is trying to figure out how it happens. One possibility he says is that tears discharge certain chemicals from your body, chemicals that build up during stress. When people talk about crying it out,"I think that might actually be what they are doing",he says.If Fred is right,what do you think will happen to people who restrain their tears? Boys, for example ,cry only about a quarter as often as girls once they reach teenage years, and we all cry a lot less now than we did as babies .Could it possibly be that we face less stress? Maybe we found another ways to deal with it ,or maybe we just feel embarrassed.
Questions 14-17 are based on the passage you have just heard.
14.What's the topic discussed in this passage?
15.What is Winifred trying to find out?
16.What does the passage say about teenage boys and girls?
17.What's the difference between human beings and other animals when shedding tears?
Passage three
Imaging this:you wake up each morning to find your sister lying beside you,to get dressed and tie your shoes, you use one hand and she uses another. You do everything out together,too,even sitting on the same chair at lunch and riding on the same bicycle. That's what life is like for six-year-old Betty and Abby. Like most twins, the two girls look very much alike,but unlike most twins,Betty and Abby share parts of the same body .Twins like Betty and Abby are rare. Only about 40 sets are born in the United States each year. Few survive as long as Betty and Abby .That's because twins often share vital organs, like a heart or brain. The shared organs are often badly shaped and may not be strong enough to support both twins. But Betty and Abby each has her own head, heart and stomach which function nomp3ally .Because she has three or four lungs which provide plenty of oxygen for both twins. Most of their completely shared organs lie below the waist. Betty And Abby live relatively nomp3al lives.They attend a regular school ,and each does her own school work .They prefer to do some projects together,though ,for example,to cut out paper dolls ,one twin holds the paper,while the other uses the scissors. But sometimes,the girls don't want to do the same thing, for example, sometimes they want to play with different toys. What do they do then? "We toss a coin",says Abby .
Questions 18-20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
18.In what aspect ,do Betty and Abby differ from most twins?
19.What does the passage tell us about twins who share parts of the same body?
20.What does the passage say about the education of the twin girls?   

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